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Like many “new” technologies, the supercapacitor actually has a long history that goes back decades. In the past few years, though, new materials and improvements in manufacturing have made supercapacitors a force to reckoned with in the energy storage world. In addition, the range of applications for supercapacitors have broadened to the point where it seems supercapacitors will almost certainly be a major revenue opportunity for both device makers and materials companies over the coming decade.
The uses of supercapacitors also seem to fit well with the current enthusiasm for green technologies. They have, for example, been used in green building, wind turbines, and for frequency regulation in Smart Grids. Meanwhile, supercapacitor use is expanding rapidly in the transportation sector. The Toyota Prius uses them for backup power when braking and some BMW models use them in power assists. Supercapacitor equiped buses have been used in relatively small numbers in California and China is deploying 13,000 electric buses.
As supercapacitors become increasingly miniaturized, NanoMarkets also sees them playing a growing role in consumer markets. Applications where supercapacitors have been suggested in the realm of consumer products include notebook PCs, digital music players, handheld devices of many kinds, toys, ebook readers and cell phones. Yet another area that has attracted considerable attention for future use of supercapacitors is in power tools, where an essential requirement is to store power and recharge.
With so many opportunities available, NanoMarkets believed that it was high time to provide an analysis of where the money will be made in the supercapacitor business and where there is nothing but hype. In this study we also look at the improvements in supercapacitors that are expected through the use of novel materials such as graphene and how materials firms in general can best capitalize on a supercapacitor boom.
Noting that manufacturing improvements have already led to significant changes in supercapacitor efficiency and other performance parameters, we also explore the cost reduction and manufacturing trends in the supercapacitor business. In addition, the report contains detailed eight year forecasts in terms of supercapacitor applications, capacity and technology along with the profiles of leading supercapacitor manufacturers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive SummaryE.1 Emerging Opportunities for Supercapacitor FirmsE.1.1 New Opportunities Appearing for SupercapacitorsE.2 Vehicular ApplicationsE.3 Smart Electricity GridsE.4 Supercapacitors, Renewable Energy and "Green" BuildingE.5 Opportunities for Supercapacitors in Consumer Products and ComputersE.6 Firms to WatchE.6.1 Advanced Capacitor Technologies (ACT) (Japan)E.6.2 Axion Power (U.S.)E.6.3 CAP-XX (Australia)E.6.4 EEStor (U.S.)E.6.5 EnerG2 (U.S.)E.6.6 ESMA (Russia)E.6.7 FastCAP (U.S.)E.6.8 Graphene Energy (U.S.)E.6.9 IoxusE.6.10 Maxwell TechnologiesE.6.11 Nesscap (Korea)E.6.12 Reticle (U.S.)E.6.13 Skeleton Technologies (Estonia)E.6.14 Y-Carbon (U.S.)E.7 Supercapacitor-Related Opportunities for Materials FirmsE.8 Summary of ForecastsChapter One: Introduction1.1 Background to This Report1.1.1 Supercapacitors, the Smart Grid and the "Green" Power Industry1.1.2 Trains, Boats and Planes and Supercapacitors: Supercapacitors and Transport1.1.3 Supercapacitors in Consumer Products and Microelectronics1.1.4 Other Applications for Supercapacitors1.1.5 Supercapacitors: Opportunities, Improvements and Ways Forward1.2 Objective and Scope of this Report1.3 Methodology of This Report1.4 Plan of This ReportChapter Two: Supercapacitor Technology Trends2.1 Introduction: Supercapacitors Improve and Markets Expand2.2 Current Designs for Supercapacitors2.2.1 Electrochemical Double-Layered Capacitors2.2.2 Pseudocapacitors or Redox-Capacitors2.2.3 Hybrid Capacitors2.3 Future Supercapacitor Designs and Supercapacitor R&D2.3.1 Paper Supercapacitors2.3.2 Miniaturization of Supercapacitors2.4 Hybridization with Batteries2.4.1 Ultrabatteries2.5 Commercially Interesting Supercapacitor R&D Projects2.5.1 Monolithic Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Micro-Supercapacitors (U.S. and France)2.5.2 Ultracapacitor for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (India)2.5.3 Manufacturing Deformable Energy Storage Devices from Carbon Nanotube Macro-Films (U.S.)2.5.4 High Energy & Power Density Supercapacitor-Based Energy Storage System (HESCAP)(Spain, France, Greece, Estonia and the Ukraine)2.5.5 ANL Project on Actively Coupled Ultracapacitor-Battery System (U.S.)2.5.6 "TRANS-SUPERCAP": Energy-Optimized Electrical Systems for Land Transport Using Batteries and Supercapacitors (Romania)2.5.7 Sahz Supercapacitor Pilot Plant (Malaysia)2.6 Energy Density and Other Performance Trends2.6.1 Current Trends in Energy Density2.6.2 Current Trends in Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR)2.6.3 Current Trends in Operating Voltage2.7 Technology Challenges for Supercapacitors2.7.1 Energy Density2.7.2 Self-Discharge Rate2.7.3 Costs2.7.4 Package Development2.8 Material Trends and Uses in Supercapacitors2.8.1 Activated Carbon2.8.2 Carbon Nanotubes, Nanowires and Graphene2.8.3 Carbon Aerogels2.8.4 Carbon Precursors and Potassium Hydroxide Activation2.8.5 Conductive Polymers and Other Organic Materials2.9 Key Points from this ChapterChapter Three: Supercapacitor Applications and Markets3.1 Introduction3.2 Vehicular Applications3.2.1 Electric Vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Supercapacitors3.2.2 Public Transport Applications3.2.3 Private Vehicle Applications3.2.4 Racing Vehicle Applications3.2.5 Supercapacitors as a Sole Source of Vehicular Power3.3 Smart Electricity Grids3.3.1 Supercapacitors and Microgrids3.3.2 Renewable Power Integration3.3.3 Supercapacitors and UPS3.4 Consumer Electronics3.4.1 Digital Still Cameras3.4.2 Digital Music Players3.4.3 Smart Phones3.4.4 Notebook PCs3.4.5 Toys3.5 Other Microelectronic Systems3.5.1 Memory Backup3.6 Power Tools3.7 Green Building Applications3.7.1 Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems3.8 Military and Aerospace Applications3.9 Other Industrial Applications3.10 Key Points from this ChapterChapter Four: Eight-Year Forecasts of Supercapacitor Markets4.1 Forecasting Methodology4.1.1 Forecasting Uncertainties and Alternative Scenarios4.1.2 Data Sources4.2 Pricing and Cost Trends4.3 Eight-year Forecast of Supercapacitors in Solar and Wind Applications4.4 Eight-year Forecast of Supercapacitors in Smart Grids4.5 Eight-Year Forecast of Supercapacitors in Consumer Electronics4.6 Eight-Year Forecast of Supercapacitors in EVs, HEVs and Conventional Cars4.7 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of Supercapacitor MarketsAcronyms and Abbreviations Used In this ReportAbout the AuthorList of ExhibitsExhibit E-1Advantages and Disadvantages of SupercapacitorsExhibit E-2Worldwide Market for Supercapacitors ($ Million)Exhibit 4-1Supercapacitor Markets: Solar and WindExhibit 4-2Worldwide Market for Smart-Grid Supercapacitors (MWh)Exhibit 4-3Cost Per Kilowatt Hour for Supercapacitor Storage In Smart GridsExhibit 4-4Worldwide Market for Smart-Grid Supercapacitors ($ Millions)Exhibit 4-5Worldwide Market for Supercapacitors In Consumer ElectronicsExhibit 4-6Worldwide Market for Supercapacitors in Electric, Hybrid and Conventional VehiclesExhibit 4-7Worldwide Market for Supercapacitors ($ Millions)