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REPORT # Nano-046 PUBLISHED May 09, 2008
Organic Photovoltaic Markets
  • Renewable Energy

    The promises of organic photovoltaics (OPV) are disruptive pricing and the ability to enable entirely new products such as smart windows and solar-charged cell phones. Despite these promises, utilizing OPV will be challenging. Organic materials offer poor energy conversion ratios when compared to other thin-film PV technologies, even worse when compared to more conventional crystalline-based photovoltaics. In addition, as with all organic electronics, the active material is very susceptible to damage by water vapor and oxygen. 

    This new report analyzes and quantifies the market for OPV over the next eight years. It provides capacity and market forecasts, profiles both materials and solar panel firms to watch in the OPV space and takes a hard look at investment trends impacting the OPV business.

    Beginning with an examination of the current state of the art in OPV, the report discusses performance issues and the various materials options including "pure" polymer approaches, small molecules, DSSC's and hybrid approaches. An analysis follows of future applications of OPV in traditional areas, as well as novel uses in integrated building systems, signage and consumer electronics.  The report ends with detailed forecasts of OPV markets broken out by application, production technology and material.


    Executive Summary


      E.1 Evolution of OPV and DSC Technologies
      E.1.1 Organic Photovoltaics (OPV)
      E.1.2 Dye Sensitized Cells (DSCs)
      E.2 Evolution of OPV and DSC Markets
      E.2.1 Current Applications Development Efforts
      E.2.2 Analysis of Market Opportunities for OPV and DSC Technologies
      E.3 DSC and OPV Firms to Watch
      E.3.1 DSC Suppliers
      E.3.2 OPV Suppliers
      E.4 Investment Trends in OPV
      E.4.1 VC and Other Private Investment
      E.4.2 Government Investment
      E.5 Summary of Market Projections


    Chapter One: Introduction

      1.1 Background to this Report
      1.1.1 The Rise of New PV Materials
      1.1.2 Enter OPV
      1.1.3 New Materials for OPV
      1.1.4 Markets for OPV and DSC
      1.2 Objectives and Scope of this Report
      1.3 Methodology of this Report
      1.4 Plan of this Report


    Chapter Two: Technologies and Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

      2.1 Introduction
      2.2 Benefits of OPV
      2.2.1 Cost
      2.2.2 Flexibility and Weight
      2.3 Areas for Improvement in OPV Technology
      2.3.1 Conversion Efficiencies
      2.3.2 Environmental and Long-term Stability
      2.3.3 Other
      2.4 Materials for OPV
      2.4.1 Polymers
      2.4.2 Small Molecules
      2.4.3 Dye Sensitized Cells (DSCs)
      2.4.4 Use of Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes and Nanocrystals
      2.4.5 Encapsulation, Barrier Coatings and Substrates
      2.4.6 Other Materials
      2.5 Device Architectures
      2.5.1 Bulk Heterojunctions (BHJs)
      2.5.2 Tandem Cells
      2.6 Manufacturing Approaches
      2.6.1 Printing and Solution Processing
      2.6.2 Vacuum Deposition
      2.6.3 Alternative Deposition Methods
      2.7 Key Points in this Chapter


    Chapter Three: Applications for OPV

      3.1 Introduction
      3.2 Traditional Solar Panels
      3.3 Integrated Building Systems
      3.3.1 Roofing
      3.3.2 Smart Windows and Walls
      3.4 Consumer Electronics
      3.4.1 Onboard Battery Chargers for Handheld Devices
      3.4.2 Standalone Battery Chargers
      3.4.3 Calculators
      3.4.4 Watches
      3.5 Smart Fabrics
      3.5.1 Military Uniforms
      3.5.2 Smart Curtains
      3.6 Signage
      3.7 Progress Toward On-Grid Power Generation
      3.7.1 Markets in the U.S
      3.7.2 Markets in Europe
      3.8 Packaging Applications
      3.9 Key Points in this Chapter


    Chapter Four: Profiles of OPV Technology and Materials Developers

      4.1 Introduction
      4.2 Dyesol Limited
      4.3 Global Photonic Energy Corporation (GPEC)
      4.4 G24 Innovations (G24i)
      4.4.1 BASF
      4.4.2 Cardiff University
      4.5 Heliatek
      4.5.1 Heliatek and the Bosch/BASF Alliance
      4.6 Konarka Technologies
      4.6.1 Materials Partners
      4.6.2 Scale-up partners
      4.6.3 Application Partners
      4.7 Merck/EMD
      4.7.1 BASF, Bosch, Merck and Schott Alliance
      4.8 Peccell Technologies
      4.9 Plextronics
      4.10 Solarmer (AMREL)
      4.11 Others
      4.11.1 Botest Systems
      4.11.2 Eikos
      4.11.3 Isovolta Group
      4.11.4 Matsushita
      4.11.5 Mitsubishi
      4.11.6 Orionsolar
      4.11.7 Seiki / Toyota
      4.11.8 Solaris Nanosciences Corporation
      4.11.9 Solaronix SA
      4.11.10 Vitex Systems
      4.12 Research Institutions
      4.12.1 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)Michael Gratzel
      4.12.2 Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE)  Andreas Gombert and Michael Niggemann
      4.12.3 Johannes Kepler Univeristy's Linzer Institut für Organische Solarzellen (LIOS) - Serdar Sariciftci
      4.12.4 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
      4.12.5 OE-A/VDMA
      4.12.6 PETEC


    Chapter Five: Eight-Year Forecasts of Organic and Dye Sensitized Cell Photovoltaics

      5.1 Forecasting Methodology
      5.1.1 Data Sources
      5.1.2 Scope of Forecast
      5.2 Assessment of Emerging Capacity for DSC and OPV Production
      5.2.1 DSC
      5.2.2 OPV
      5.3 Forecast of DSC and OPV Capacity Utilization and Production
      5.4 Forecast by Application
      5.4.1 DSC
      5.4.2 OPV
      5.4.3 Summary of Forecasts by Materials and Differences from Previous NanoMarkets Forecasts
      5.5 Forecast of Manufacturing Technology
      5.6 How Much Confidence Should You Have in These Forecasts?

    Appendix 1 - Methodology for Reporting Cell Efficiencies
    Abbreviations and Acronyms Used in This Report
    About the Author

    List of Exhibits

    Exhibit E-1: OPV Cell Development: Time Line
    Exhibit E-2: DSC Cell Development
    Exhibit E-3: Technology Transition for DSC and OPV Efficiencies
    Exhibit 3-4: Opportunity Analysis for OPV/DSC Technology
    Exhibit E-5: Summary of Revenue Projections for OPV and DSC Technology ($ Millions)
    Exhibit 2-1: DSC and OPV Cell Efficiencies
    Exhibit 2-2: Benefits of DSC and OPV Cells
    Exhibit 2-3: Technology Transitions for PV Costs
    Exhibit 2-4: Materials and Technologies Used in OPV Cells
    Exhibit 2-5: Selected p-channel Organic Semiconductor Systems
    Exhibit 2-6: Selected n-type Organic Semiconductor Systems
    Exhibit 2-7: Selected Small Molecules
    Exhibit 2-8: DSC Technology Transitions
    Exhibit 2-9: DSC - Today's Cost Breakdown
    Exhibit 2-10: Comparison of DSC Sensitizer Materials
    Exhibit 2-11: Fullerene Based n-Channel Organic Semiconductors
    Exhibit 2-12: Transparent Conductive Electrode Comparison
    Exhibit 2-13: Indium Tin Oxide Substitutes
    Exhibit 2-14: Organic Solar Cell Manufacturing
    Exhibit 2-15: Comparison of Common Printing Processes
    Exhibit 2-16: Comparison of Inkjet Technologies
    Exhibit 2-17: Inkjet Equipment Suppliers
    Exhibit 2-18: OVPD Versus Thermal Evaporation
    Exhibit 3-1: Technological Developments for DSC and PV by Application
    Exhibit 3-2: Selected DSC and OPV Consumer Electronic Applications
    Exhibit 3-3: European Feed-in Tariffs
    Exhibit 3-4: Competitiveness Between Electricity Generating Cost for PV and Utility Prices
    Exhibit 4-1: Selected OPV Material Suppliers
    Exhibit 4-2: Selected OPV Technology Developers
    Exhibit 4-3: Recent Dyesol Partnership Developments
    Exhibit 4-4: G24i's Product Range
    Exhibit 4-5: Proposed Properties for Heliatek's OPV Material
    Exhibit 4-6: Properties of Konarka's Power Plastic OPV-based Material
    Exhibit 4-7: Konarka's OPV-based Material Targets for 2010
    Exhibit 4-8: Recent Konarka Partnership Developments
    Exhibit 4-9: Merck KGaA/EMD Chemicals OPV Product Range
    Exhibit 4-10: Properties of Peccell's OPV Material
    Exhibit 4-11: Proposed Properties of Solarmer's OPV Cells
    Exhibit 4-12: Isovolta's Encapsulation Material Results
    Exhibit 4-13: Proposed Properties of Orionsolar's DSC
    Exhibit 4-14: Vitex Product Range
    Exhibit 4-15: Selected Research Institutions Developing DSC & OPV Technology
    Exhibit 4-16: Suppliers Holding a Pioneer License from EPFL
    Exhibit 4-17: OPV Applications
    Exhibit 5-1: Worldwide Capacity and Production of Organic and Dye Sensitive Cell Photovoltaics
    Exhibit 5-2: Worldwide Market for DSC-based PV
    Exhibit 5-3: Worldwide Market for OPV-based PV
    Exhibit 5-4: Worldwide Markets or OPV- and DSC- based PV ($ Millions)


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