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This report provides the latest in NanoMarkets’ ongoing coverage of the markets for materials for the thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) space. NanoMarkets is unique in its coverage of the materials used in TFPV and we have been providing insightful analysis in this space for more than four years.
Much has happened since our report last year. First Solar has established that CdTe can be a cost leader for solar panels. And TFPV, because of its inherent flexibility, seems increasingly well suited to use in building integrated PV one of the fastest growing segments of the PV segment as a whole.At the same time, the silicon shortage has gone away and with it one of the most persuasive arguments for using a TFPV technology rather than conventional crystalline silicon PV. In addition, the ongoing worldwide financial crisis has dampened the enthusiasms for “green tech” by both consumers and investors.In the light of all these changes, this report:• Offers a clear assessment and quantification as to where the money will be spent on the major materials that go into TFPV in the next eight years.• Identifies the materials strategies of the key cell and module players in TFPV, as well as the product/market strategies of the key materials firms supplying into this segment.• Includes eight-year forecasts of volumes and revenues for the materials used by the three main thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) technologies; CIGS, thin-film silicon, and CdTe.• Provides market analysis of both the absorber and electrode materials, as well the latest materials-related PV developments such as the use of nanocrystalline silicon, PV inks, flexible substrates and advanced antireflection materials and barrier films.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive SummaryE.1 The TFPV Business: What Has Changed in the Last Year?E.2 Key Opportunities for Suppliers of Absorber and Junction MaterialsE.2.1 The Thin-Film Silicon PerspectiveE.2.2 The CdTe PerspectiveE.2.3 The CIGS PerspectiveE.3 Key Opportunities for Suppliers of Non-Absorber Layer Materials Used in TFPVE.3.1 Substrate Supplier OpportunitiesE.3.2 Encapsulation Materials OpportunitiesE.3.3 The Electrode and Antireflection Materials Supplier PerspectiveE.4 Firms to Watch in the TFPV Materials MarketE.4.1 Thin-Film Silicon Materials SuppliersE.4.2 CdTe Materials SuppliersE.4.3 CIGS Materials SuppliersE.5 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of TFPV Materials MarketsChapter One: Introduction1.1 Background to this Report1.1.1 Thin-Film Silicon: Beyond Amorphous Silicon?1.1.2 CdTe: Is There Life Beyond First Solar and What Does It Mean for Materials Suppliers?1.1.3 CIGS: If Not Now, When?1.1.4 BIPV, TFPV, Flexibility and Materials1.2 Objectives and Scope of this Report1.3 Methodology of this Report1.4 Plan of this ReportChapter Two: Thin-Film Silicon: Still in the Game2.1 Changing Direction after the End of the Silicon Shortage2.1.1 Impact on Materials Suppliers2.2 Evolution of Cell Architectures2.2.1 Impact on Materials Suppliers2.3 Opportunities for Suppliers of Silicon Absorber Layer Materials2.3.1 Amorphous Silicon2.3.2 Microcrystalline Silicon2.3.3 Nanocrystalline Silicon2.3.4 SiGe2.3.5 Printed Silicon PV and Silicon Inks: When Will Their Time Come Around?2.4 Opportunities for Suppliers of Electrode Materials2.4.1 Transparent Electrode Materials2.4.2 Other Electrode and Reflector Materials2.5 Opportunities for Suppliers of Substrates and Encapsulation Materials2.6 Silane and Chemical Safety Issues and their Impact on Materials Suppliers2.7 Key Suppliers of Thin-Film Silicon Materials2.7.1 Air Liquide2.7.2 Dow Corning2.7.3 Linde Group2.7.4 DuPont2.7.5 Praxair2.7.6 Voltaix2.7.7 Evonik2.7.8 Innovalight2.7.9 NanoGram2.7.10 Sixtron2.7.11 Applied Materials2.7.12 Oerlikon Solar2.7.13 Ulvac2.8 Key Points in this ReportChapter Three: CdTe PV: Lowest Cost Option?3.1 Can Other CdTe Firms Capture Market Share from First Solar?3.1.1 Alternatives to First Solar's Manufacturing Strategy3.1.2 Impact on Materials Suppliers3.2 Evolution of Cell Architectures3.2.1 Impact on Materials Suppliers3.3 Opportunities for Suppliers of CdTe Absorber Layer Materials3.3.1 Next-Generation Absorber Layer Materials3.3.2 CdS Junction Layer Materials3.4 Opportunities for Suppliers of Electrode Materials3.4.1 Transparent Electrode Materials3.4.2 Other Electrode and Reflector Materials3.5 Opportunities for Suppliers of Substrates and Encapsulation Materials3.6 Health and Safety Concerns: Cadmium and Tellurium3.6.1 Cadmium3.6.2 Tellurium3.6.3 Impact on Suppliers3.7 Key Suppliers of CdTe Materials3.7.1 5N Plus3.7.2 Apollo Solar Energy3.7.3 Redlen Technologies3.7.4 Other Firms3.8 Key Points Made in this ChapterChapter Four: Materials for CIGS Thin-Film Photovoltaics4.1 What are the Current Prospects for CIGS in the New PV Environment?4.1.1 The Indium Question4.2 Evolution of Cell Architectures4.2.1 Impact on Materials and Suppliers4.3 Opportunities for Suppliers of CIGS Absorber Layer Materials4.3.1 Absorber Layer Composition: CIS vs. CIGS4.3.2 Other Absorber Layer Compositional and Structural Features4.4 Opportunities for Suppliers of Electrode Materials4.4.1 Transparent Electrode Materials4.4.2 Other Electrode, Reflector Materials4.4.3 Antireflection Materials4.5 CIGS Deposition and Raw Materials4.5.1 Vacuum Deposition4.5.2 Printing and CIGS Inks4.5.3 Electrodeposition4.5.4 Impact of Changing Prospects for CIG and CIGS Manufacturing Strategies on Materials Manufacturers4.6 Opportunities for Suppliers of Substrates and Encapsulation Materials4.7 Key Suppliers of Materials Unique to CIGS PV4.7.1 Sputtering Materials4.7.2 Indium Corporation4.7.3 Umicore4.7.4 American Elements4.7.5 Nanoco4.8 Key Points Made in this ChapterChapter Five: Emerging Market Opportunities for Non-Absorber Materials in Inorganic TFPV Markets—Substrates, Encapsulation and Electrodes5.1 Substrates5.1.1 Rigid Substrates5.1.2 Flexible Substrates and BIPV Products5.1.3 Key Suppliers of TFPV Substrates5.2 Transparent Electrode Materials5.2.1 New TCO's for TFPV: FTO, ITO, and AZO5.2.2 Future Transparent Conductors: CNTs, other Nanomaterials, and Composites5.2.3 Key Suppliers of Transparent Electrode Materials for TFPV5.3 Nontransparent Electrode Materials5.3.1 Key Suppliers of Nontransparent Electrode Materials for TFPV5.4 Encapsulation and Antireflection MaterialsChapter Six: Eight-Year Forecasts of TFPV Materials Markets6.1 Forecasting Methodology6.1.1 Information Sources6.1.2 Changes from Last Year's Forecasts and Scope of Forecasts6.1.3 Alternative Scenarios and Other Factors Taken Into Consideration6.2 Absorber Material Revenues by TFPV Technologies6.3 Forecasts of Materials Specific to Thin-Film Silicon PV6.3.1 Thin-Film Silicon PV Materials Overview6.3.2 Major Thin-Film Silicon Absorber Materials6.3.3 Thin-Film Silicon PV Substrate Materials6.3.4 Back Electrode Materials for TF Si PV6.2.5 Printed Silicon Hybrid Cells6.2.6 Printing for Thin-Film Silicon Cells6.4 Forecasts of Materials Specific to CdTe PV6.4.1 CdTe PV Materials Overview6.4.2 Tellurium and CdTe Absorber Materials6.4.3 CdTe PV Deposition Methods6.4.4 CdTe PV Substrate Materials6.4.5 Back Electrode Materials for CdTe PV6.5 Forecasts of Materials Specific to CIGS PV6.5.1 CIGS PV Materials Overview6.5.2 CIGS Absorber Layer Materials6.5.3 CIGS Deposition Methods6.4.4 CIGS PV Substrate Materials6.5.5 Back Electrode Materials for CIGS PV6.6 Forecasts of Materials Shared by the Thin-Film PV Technologies6.6.1 Front Electrode Materials6.6.2 Encapsulation and Antireflection Materials6.7 Summary of Market ForecastsAcronyms and Abbreviations Used In this ReportAbout the AuthorList of Exhibits
Exhibit E-1Summary of Worldwide Markets for TFPV Materials ($ Millions)Exhibit 6-1Absorber Material Revenues by TFPV TechnologyExhibit 6-2Worldwide Market for Materials Used in Thin-Film Silicon PV CellsExhibit 6-3Materials Used in the TF Si Absorber LayerExhibit 6-4Substrate Materials for TF Si PV CellsExhibit 6-5Back (Non-transparent) Electrode Materials for TF Si PV CellsExhibit 6-6Materials Used in Printed Silicon Hybrid PV CellsExhibit 6-7Materials Used in Printed Thin-Film Silicon PV CellsExhibit 6-8Worldwide Market for Materials Used in CdTe PV CellsExhibit 6-9Worldwide Market for Materials Used in the CdTe Absorber LayerExhibit 6-10Worldwide Market for Materials for CdTe Absorber Layer by Deposition MethodExhibit 6-11Worldwide Market of Substrate Materials for CdTe PV CellsExhibit 6-12Worldwide Market for Back (Non-transparent) Electrode Materials for CdTe PV CellsExhibit 6-13Worldwide Market of the Materials Used in CIGS PV CellsExhibit 6-14Worldwide Market for the Materials Used in the CIGS Absorber LayerExhibit 6-15Worldwide Market of the Materials Used in CIGS Absorber Layer by Deposition MethodExhibit 6-16Worldwide Market of the Substrate Materials for CIGS PV CellsExhibit 6-17Back (Nontransparent) Electrode Materials for CIGS PV Cells(Cells with Back Electrode Separate from Substrate)Exhibit 6-18Worldwide Market of Front Electrode Materials for TFPV CellsExhibit 6-19Encapsulation Materials Market for TFPV CellsExhibit 6-20Summary of Worldwide Markets for TFPV Materials ($ Millions)Exhibit 6-21Summary of Absorber Materials by Commodity Type ($ Millions)