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REPORT # Nano-240 PUBLISHED December 01, 2010
Thin-Film Photovoltaics Materials Markets, 2011 and Beyond
CATEGORIES :
  • Advanced Materials
  • Renewable Energy
  • SUMMARY

    Check the Related Report link on the right for new reports issued since this report was published

    This report provides the latest in NanoMarkets’ ongoing coverage of the markets for materials for the thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) space.  NanoMarkets is unique in its coverage of the materials used in TFPV and we have been providing insightful analysis in this space for more than four years.  

    Much has happened since our report last year.  First Solar has established that CdTe can be a cost leader for solar panels.  And TFPV, because of its inherent flexibility, seems increasingly well suited to use in building integrated PV one of the fastest growing segments of the PV segment as a whole.

    At the same time, the silicon shortage has gone away and with it one of the most persuasive arguments for using a TFPV technology rather than conventional crystalline silicon PV.  In addition, the ongoing worldwide financial crisis has dampened the enthusiasms for “green tech” by both consumers and investors.
     
    In the light of all these changes, this report:
     
    Offers a clear assessment and quantification as to where the money will be spent on the major materials that go into TFPV in the next eight years.  
     
    Identifies the materials strategies of the key cell and module players in TFPV, as well as the product/market strategies of the key materials firms supplying into this segment. 
     
    Includes eight-year forecasts of volumes and revenues for the materials used by the three main thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) technologies; CIGS, thin-film silicon, and CdTe. 
     
    Provides market analysis of both the absorber and electrode materials, as well the latest materials-related PV developments such as the use of nanocrystalline silicon, PV inks, flexible substrates and advanced antireflection materials and barrier films. 
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Executive Summary

    E.1 The TFPV Business:  What Has Changed in the Last Year?
    E.2 Key Opportunities for Suppliers of Absorber and Junction Materials
    E.2.1 The Thin-Film Silicon Perspective
    E.2.2 The CdTe Perspective
    E.2.3 The CIGS Perspective
    E.3 Key Opportunities for Suppliers of Non-Absorber Layer Materials Used in TFPV
    E.3.1 Substrate Supplier Opportunities
    E.3.2 Encapsulation Materials Opportunities
    E.3.3 The Electrode and Antireflection Materials Supplier Perspective
    E.4 Firms to Watch in the TFPV Materials Market
    E.4.1 Thin-Film Silicon Materials Suppliers
    E.4.2 CdTe Materials Suppliers
    E.4.3 CIGS Materials Suppliers
    E.5 Summary of Eight-Year Forecasts of TFPV Materials Markets
     
    Chapter One: Introduction
    1.1 Background to this Report
    1.1.1 Thin-Film Silicon: Beyond Amorphous Silicon?
    1.1.2 CdTe: Is There Life Beyond First Solar and What Does It Mean for Materials Suppliers?
    1.1.3 CIGS: If Not Now, When?
    1.1.4 BIPV, TFPV, Flexibility and Materials
    1.2 Objectives and Scope of this Report
    1.3 Methodology of this Report
    1.4 Plan of this Report
     
    Chapter Two: Thin-Film Silicon: Still in the Game
    2.1 Changing Direction after the End of the Silicon Shortage
    2.1.1 Impact on Materials Suppliers
    2.2 Evolution of Cell Architectures
    2.2.1 Impact on Materials Suppliers
    2.3 Opportunities for Suppliers of Silicon Absorber Layer Materials
    2.3.1 Amorphous Silicon
    2.3.2 Microcrystalline Silicon
    2.3.3 Nanocrystalline Silicon
    2.3.4 SiGe
    2.3.5 Printed Silicon PV and Silicon Inks:  When Will Their Time Come Around?
    2.4 Opportunities for Suppliers of Electrode Materials
    2.4.1 Transparent Electrode Materials
    2.4.2 Other Electrode and Reflector Materials
    2.5 Opportunities for Suppliers of Substrates and Encapsulation Materials
    2.6 Silane and Chemical Safety Issues and their Impact on Materials Suppliers
    2.7 Key Suppliers of Thin-Film Silicon Materials
    2.7.1 Air Liquide
    2.7.2 Dow Corning
    2.7.3 Linde Group
    2.7.4 DuPont
    2.7.5 Praxair
    2.7.6 Voltaix
    2.7.7 Evonik
    2.7.8 Innovalight
    2.7.9 NanoGram
    2.7.10 Sixtron
    2.7.11 Applied Materials
    2.7.12 Oerlikon Solar
    2.7.13  Ulvac
    2.8 Key Points in this Report
     
    Chapter Three:  CdTe PV:  Lowest Cost Option?
    3.1 Can Other CdTe Firms Capture Market Share from First Solar?
    3.1.1 Alternatives to First Solar's Manufacturing Strategy
    3.1.2 Impact on Materials Suppliers
    3.2 Evolution of Cell Architectures
    3.2.1 Impact on Materials Suppliers
    3.3 Opportunities for Suppliers of CdTe Absorber Layer Materials
    3.3.1 Next-Generation Absorber Layer Materials
    3.3.2 CdS Junction Layer Materials
    3.4 Opportunities for Suppliers of Electrode Materials
    3.4.1 Transparent Electrode Materials
    3.4.2 Other Electrode and Reflector Materials
    3.5 Opportunities for Suppliers of Substrates and Encapsulation Materials
    3.6 Health and Safety Concerns:  Cadmium and Tellurium
    3.6.1 Cadmium
    3.6.2 Tellurium
    3.6.3 Impact on Suppliers
    3.7 Key Suppliers of CdTe Materials
    3.7.1 5N Plus
    3.7.2 Apollo Solar Energy
    3.7.3 Redlen Technologies
    3.7.4 Other Firms
    3.8 Key Points Made in this Chapter
     
    Chapter Four: Materials for CIGS Thin-Film Photovoltaics
    4.1 What are the Current Prospects for CIGS in the New PV Environment?
    4.1.1 The Indium Question
    4.2 Evolution of Cell Architectures
    4.2.1 Impact on Materials and Suppliers
    4.3 Opportunities for Suppliers of CIGS Absorber Layer Materials
    4.3.1 Absorber Layer Composition: CIS vs. CIGS
    4.3.2 Other Absorber Layer Compositional and Structural Features
    4.4 Opportunities for Suppliers of Electrode Materials
    4.4.1 Transparent Electrode Materials
    4.4.2 Other Electrode, Reflector Materials
    4.4.3 Antireflection Materials
    4.5 CIGS Deposition and Raw Materials
    4.5.1 Vacuum Deposition
    4.5.2 Printing and CIGS Inks
    4.5.3 Electrodeposition
    4.5.4  Impact of Changing Prospects for CIG and CIGS Manufacturing Strategies on Materials Manufacturers
    4.6 Opportunities for Suppliers of Substrates and Encapsulation Materials
    4.7 Key Suppliers of Materials Unique to CIGS PV
    4.7.1 Sputtering Materials
    4.7.2 Indium Corporation
    4.7.3 Umicore
    4.7.4 American Elements
    4.7.5 Nanoco
    4.8 Key Points Made in this Chapter
     
    Chapter Five: Emerging Market Opportunities for Non-Absorber Materials in Inorganic TFPV Markets—Substrates, Encapsulation and Electrodes
    5.1 Substrates
    5.1.1 Rigid Substrates
    5.1.2 Flexible Substrates and BIPV Products
    5.1.3 Key Suppliers of TFPV Substrates
    5.2 Transparent Electrode Materials
    5.2.1 New TCO's for TFPV: FTO, ITO, and AZO
    5.2.2   Future Transparent Conductors:  CNTs, other Nanomaterials, and Composites
    5.2.3 Key Suppliers of Transparent Electrode Materials for TFPV
    5.3 Nontransparent Electrode Materials
    5.3.1 Key Suppliers of Nontransparent Electrode Materials for TFPV
    5.4 Encapsulation and Antireflection Materials
     
    Chapter Six: Eight-Year Forecasts of TFPV Materials Markets
    6.1 Forecasting Methodology
    6.1.1 Information Sources
    6.1.2 Changes from Last Year's Forecasts and Scope of Forecasts
    6.1.3 Alternative Scenarios and Other Factors Taken Into Consideration
    6.2 Absorber Material Revenues by TFPV Technologies
    6.3 Forecasts of Materials Specific to Thin-Film Silicon PV
    6.3.1 Thin-Film Silicon PV Materials Overview
    6.3.2 Major Thin-Film Silicon Absorber Materials
    6.3.3 Thin-Film Silicon PV Substrate Materials
    6.3.4 Back Electrode Materials for TF Si PV
    6.2.5 Printed Silicon Hybrid Cells
    6.2.6 Printing for Thin-Film Silicon Cells
    6.4 Forecasts of Materials Specific to CdTe PV
    6.4.1 CdTe PV Materials Overview
    6.4.2 Tellurium and CdTe Absorber Materials
    6.4.3 CdTe PV Deposition Methods
    6.4.4 CdTe PV Substrate Materials
    6.4.5 Back Electrode Materials for CdTe PV
    6.5 Forecasts of Materials Specific to CIGS PV
    6.5.1 CIGS PV Materials Overview
    6.5.2 CIGS Absorber Layer Materials
    6.5.3 CIGS Deposition Methods
    6.4.4 CIGS PV Substrate Materials
    6.5.5 Back Electrode Materials for CIGS PV
    6.6 Forecasts of Materials Shared by the Thin-Film PV Technologies
    6.6.1 Front Electrode Materials
    6.6.2 Encapsulation and Antireflection Materials
    6.7 Summary of Market Forecasts
    Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In this Report
    About the Author
     
    List of Exhibits
     

    Exhibit E-1

    Summary of Worldwide Markets for TFPV Materials ($ Millions)
     
    Exhibit 6-1
    Absorber Material Revenues by TFPV Technology
     
    Exhibit 6-2
    Worldwide Market for Materials Used in Thin-Film Silicon PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-3
    Materials Used in the TF Si Absorber Layer
     
    Exhibit 6-4
    Substrate Materials for TF Si PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-5
    Back (Non-transparent) Electrode Materials for TF Si PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-6
    Materials Used in Printed Silicon Hybrid PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-7
    Materials Used in Printed Thin-Film Silicon PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-8
    Worldwide Market for Materials Used in CdTe PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-9
    Worldwide Market for Materials Used in the CdTe Absorber Layer
     
    Exhibit 6-10
    Worldwide Market for Materials for CdTe Absorber Layer by Deposition Method
     
    Exhibit 6-11
    Worldwide Market of Substrate Materials for CdTe PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-12
    Worldwide Market for Back (Non-transparent) Electrode Materials for CdTe PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-13
    Worldwide Market of the Materials Used in CIGS PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-14
    Worldwide Market for the Materials Used in the CIGS Absorber Layer
     
    Exhibit 6-15
    Worldwide Market of the Materials Used in CIGS Absorber Layer by Deposition Method
     
    Exhibit 6-16
    Worldwide Market of the Substrate Materials for CIGS PV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-17
    Back (Nontransparent) Electrode Materials for CIGS PV Cells
    (Cells with Back Electrode Separate from Substrate)
     
    Exhibit 6-18
    Worldwide Market of Front Electrode Materials for TFPV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-19
    Encapsulation Materials Market for TFPV Cells
     
    Exhibit 6-20
    Summary of Worldwide Markets for TFPV Materials ($ Millions)
     
    Exhibit 6-21
    Summary of Absorber Materials by Commodity Type ($ Millions)

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