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Two years ago, when NanoMarkets produced its first report on Zinc Oxide (ZnO), ZnO was being touted as the next big thing in semiconductor materials. However, because of the recession and the usual hyperbole that accompanies any new technology or materials, the enthusiasm for ZnO in the electronics community has declined.Nonetheless, the basic value proposition ZnO as an electronics material remains the same. It is inexpensive, well understood and has interesting (conducting and semiconducting) properties. ZnO is also relatively abundant, chemically stable, easy to prepare, and non-toxic.As a result, NanoMarkets believes that Zinc Oxide once again faces some attractive new business opportunities in the near future. In the conductive coating space, new markets for ZnO has opened up because there are rapidly growing applications – in OLED lighting and photovoltaics, for example – where ITO is not entrenched and where cost sensitivity makes ITO replacement a priority.But we see the new electronics applications for ZnO as much broader than that. ZnO can be used as a semiconductor capable of making inexpensive transistors, power electronics devices, or even low-cost LEDs. ZnO's ability to be engineered into interesting nanostructures hints at even more applications down the road.There remain technical difficulties that still need to be worked out if ZnO is to achieve its full potential. Yet the number of patent filings of ZnO uses in electronics continues to grow and NanoMarkets believes that ZnO will represent a substantial market as an electronic material over the next eight years.With all these developments in ZnO electronics in mind, NanoMarkets is publishing this new report which identifies and quantifies the latest opportunities for ZnO in the electronics sector. The report discusses the revenue potential of all of the major applications areas for ZnO and how the industry will have to change to fulfill the promise that ZnO presents to the electronics industry.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive SummaryE.1 Introduction: Changes from Last YearE.2 Zinc Oxide: Potential for New Business Revenues in the Electronics MarketE.2.1 ZnO as ITO SubstituteE.2.2 ZnO as a Semiconductor: ZnO TFTsE.2.3 ZnO in PV ElectrodesE.2.4 Transparent Electronics: Fantasy or Reality?E.2.5 ZnO LEDs and the Lighting MarketE.2.6 Opportunities for ZnO in the Sensor MarketE.3 Implications for Materials and Manufacturing Equipment CompaniesE.3.1 Thin-film ZnO ManufacturingE.3.2 Single-Crystal ZnO ManufacturingE.3.3 ZnO NanostructuresE.4 Firms to WatchE.4.1 ZnO Thin-Film CompaniesE.4.2 ZnO Single-Crystal CompaniesE.4.3 Device FirmsE.5 Summary of Eight-year Market ForecastsE.5.1 Niche Opportunities for ZnOE.5.2 Uncertainties and the Three Types of ZnO Electronics OpportunitiesChapter One: Introduction1.1 Background to this Report1.1.1 Current and Future Opportunities for ZnO Electronics1.1.2 The Core Value Proposition of ZnO as an Electronics Material1.1.3 ZnO Electronics, Nanoelectronics and p-Type Semiconductors: Research Directions1.2 Objective and Scope of this Report1.3 Methodology of this Report1.4 Plan of this ReportChapter Two: ZnO in Electronics—A Technology Appraisal2.1 Introduction: Overview of the ZnO Business2.2 ZnO: Primary Production Processes2.3 ZnO Intermediary Products2.3.1 ZnO Bulk Coatings2.3.2 ZnO Thin Films2.3.3 Single Crystalline ZnO2.4 Dopants and ZnO2.4.1 n-Type Dopants2.4.2 p-Type Dopants2.5 ZnO Nanostructures and NanopowdersChapter Three: Electronics Markets for ZnO3.1 ZnO in Electronics: Value Proposition and Market Segmentation3.1.1 Market Segmentation for ZnO Electronics3.2 Mature Electronic ZnO Coatings markets3.2.1 Antistatic Coatings3.2.2 EMI/RFI Coatings3.2.3 UV Filters and Optical Coatings3.3 ZnO Coatings for the Transparent Conductor and TFT Markets3.3.1 Cost Advantages of ZnO as an ITO Alternative3.3.2 Manufacturing Advantages of ZnO as an ITO Alternative3.3.3 LCD Displays3.3.4 EL Lighting3.3.5 OLED Displays and Lighting: ZnO for ITO and TFTs3.3.6 Touch-Screen Displays: ZnO in Touch Sensors3.3.7 E-paper Displays3.4 ZnO for Photovoltaics (PV) Electrodes3.4.1 ZnO in Thin-Film Silicon PV3.4.2 ZnO in CIGS PV3.4.3 ZnO in Organic and DSC PV3.5 ZnO, Varistors and SAW Filters: Mature Markets for ZnO in Electronics3.5.1 Varistors3.5.2 SAW Filters3.6 ZnO and Sensors3.6.1 Piezoelectric Sensors3.6.2 Sensors and ZnO Nanostructures3.6.3 UV Detectors3.6.4 Gas Sensors3.6.5 Biosensors3.6.6 Other ZnO Sensors3.7 Emerging Applications for ZnO in Electronics3.7.1 ZnO-Based LEDs and Lasers3.7.2 ZnO and UV LEDs3.7.3 ZnO-based TFTs3.7.4 Notes on ZnO and Transparent Electronics3.7.5 Power Electronics3.7.6 Batteries and Fuel Cells3.8 Key Points Made in this ChapterChapter Four: Eight-Year Forecasts of ZnO Electronics Markets4.1 Forecasting Methodology4.1.1 Economic and Technological Assumptions4.2 Eight-Year Forecast by Application4.2.1 Forecasts of ZnO-Based Bulk Conductive Coatings4.2.2 Forecast of ZnO in PV Electrodes4.2.3 Forecast of ZnO as ITO Replacement4.2.4 Forecast of ZnO in Varistors and Power Electronics4.2.5 Forecast of ZnO Transistor Markets4.2.6 Forecast of ZnO lighting and UV Source Markets4.2.7 Forecast of ZnO Sensors4.3 Eight-Year Summary of ZnO Electronics by Application and Materials FunctionalityAcronyms and Abbreviations Used In this ReportAbout the AuthorList of ExhibitsExhibit E-1: ZnO: Incentives for Commercialization and Possible Revenue SourcesExhibit E-2: ZnO Markets in Electronics ($ Millions)Exhibit 2-1: Seven Manufacturing Approaches for ZnO Thin FilmsExhibit 3-1: Applications of ZnO in Electronics by TypeExhibit 3-2: Resistivity Requirements of Display Application for TCOsExhibit 4-1: ZnO Markets in Electronics: Bulk Conductive CoatingsExhibit 4-2: ZnO Markets in Electronics: ZnO ElectrodesExhibit 4-3: ZnO Markets in Electronics: ZnO as an ITO Substitute in Displays and LightingExhibit 4-4: ZnO Markets in Electronics: ZnO in Varistors and Power ElectronicsExhibit 4-5: ZnO Markets in Electronics: Transistor-Related ApplicationsExhibit 4-6: ZnO Markets in Electronics: Lighting ApplicationsExhibit 4-7: ZnO Markets in Electronics: Sensor Applications ($ Millions)Exhibit 4-8: ZnO Markets in Electronics: Summary of Applications ($ Millions)Exhibit 4-9: ZnO Markets in Electronics: Summary by ZnO Material Functionality