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REPORT # Nano-225 PUBLISHED September 27, 2010
Zinc Oxide Markets, 2010 and Beyond
  • Advanced Materials
    Two years ago, when NanoMarkets produced its first report on Zinc Oxide (ZnO), ZnO was being touted as the next big thing in semiconductor materials.  However, because of the recession and the usual hyperbole that accompanies any new technology or materials, the enthusiasm for ZnO in the electronics community has declined.
    Nonetheless, the basic value proposition ZnO as an electronics material remains the same.  It is inexpensive, well understood and has interesting (conducting and semiconducting) properties.  ZnO is also relatively abundant, chemically stable, easy to prepare, and non-toxic.
    As a result, NanoMarkets believes that Zinc Oxide once again faces some attractive new business opportunities in the near future.  In the conductive coating space, new markets for ZnO has opened up because there are rapidly growing applications – in OLED lighting and photovoltaics, for example – where ITO is not entrenched and where cost sensitivity makes ITO replacement a priority. 
    But we see the new electronics applications for ZnO as much broader than that.  ZnO can be used as a semiconductor capable of making inexpensive transistors, power electronics devices, or even low-cost LEDs. ZnO's ability to be engineered into interesting nanostructures hints at even more applications down the road.
    There remain technical difficulties that still need to be worked out if ZnO is to achieve its full potential. Yet the number of patent filings of ZnO uses in electronics continues to grow and NanoMarkets believes that ZnO will represent a substantial market as an electronic material over the next eight years.
    With all these developments in ZnO electronics in mind, NanoMarkets is publishing this new report which identifies and quantifies the latest opportunities for ZnO in the electronics sector.  The report discusses the revenue potential of all of the major applications areas for ZnO and how the industry will have to change to fulfill the promise that ZnO presents to the electronics industry.
    Executive Summary
    E.1 Introduction:  Changes from Last Year
    E.2 Zinc Oxide:  Potential for New Business Revenues in the Electronics Market
    E.2.1 ZnO as ITO Substitute
    E.2.2 ZnO as a Semiconductor:  ZnO TFTs
    E.2.3 ZnO in PV Electrodes
    E.2.4 Transparent Electronics:  Fantasy or Reality?
    E.2.5 ZnO LEDs and the Lighting Market
    E.2.6 Opportunities for ZnO in the Sensor Market
    E.3 Implications for Materials and Manufacturing Equipment Companies
    E.3.1 Thin-film ZnO Manufacturing
    E.3.2 Single-Crystal ZnO Manufacturing
    E.3.3 ZnO Nanostructures
    E.4 Firms to Watch
    E.4.1 ZnO Thin-Film Companies
    E.4.2 ZnO Single-Crystal Companies
    E.4.3 Device Firms
    E.5 Summary of Eight-year Market Forecasts
    E.5.1 Niche Opportunities for ZnO
    E.5.2 Uncertainties and the Three Types of ZnO Electronics Opportunities
    Chapter One: Introduction
    1.1 Background to this Report
    1.1.1 Current and Future Opportunities for ZnO Electronics
    1.1.2 The Core Value Proposition of ZnO as an Electronics Material
    1.1.3 ZnO Electronics, Nanoelectronics and p-Type Semiconductors:  Research Directions
    1.2 Objective and Scope of this Report
    1.3 Methodology of this Report
    1.4 Plan of this Report
    Chapter Two: ZnO in Electronics—A Technology Appraisal
    2.1 Introduction:  Overview of the ZnO Business
    2.2  ZnO: Primary Production Processes
    2.3 ZnO Intermediary Products
    2.3.1 ZnO Bulk Coatings
    2.3.2 ZnO Thin Films
    2.3.3 Single Crystalline ZnO
    2.4 Dopants and ZnO
    2.4.1 n-Type Dopants
    2.4.2 p-Type Dopants
    2.5 ZnO Nanostructures and Nanopowders
    Chapter Three:  Electronics Markets for ZnO
    3.1 ZnO in Electronics:  Value Proposition and Market Segmentation
    3.1.1 Market Segmentation for ZnO Electronics
    3.2 Mature Electronic ZnO Coatings markets
    3.2.1 Antistatic Coatings
    3.2.2 EMI/RFI Coatings
    3.2.3 UV Filters and Optical Coatings
    3.3 ZnO Coatings for the Transparent Conductor and TFT Markets
    3.3.1 Cost Advantages of ZnO as an ITO Alternative
    3.3.2 Manufacturing Advantages of ZnO as an ITO Alternative
    3.3.3 LCD Displays
    3.3.4 EL Lighting
    3.3.5 OLED Displays and Lighting:  ZnO for ITO and TFTs
    3.3.6 Touch-Screen Displays:  ZnO in Touch Sensors
    3.3.7 E-paper Displays
    3.4  ZnO for Photovoltaics (PV) Electrodes
    3.4.1 ZnO in Thin-Film Silicon PV
    3.4.2 ZnO in CIGS PV
    3.4.3 ZnO in Organic and DSC PV
    3.5 ZnO, Varistors and SAW Filters: Mature Markets for ZnO in Electronics
    3.5.1 Varistors
    3.5.2 SAW Filters
    3.6 ZnO and Sensors
    3.6.1 Piezoelectric Sensors
    3.6.2 Sensors and ZnO Nanostructures
    3.6.3 UV Detectors
    3.6.4 Gas Sensors
    3.6.5 Biosensors
    3.6.6 Other ZnO Sensors
    3.7 Emerging Applications for ZnO in Electronics
    3.7.1 ZnO-Based LEDs and Lasers
    3.7.2 ZnO and UV LEDs
    3.7.3 ZnO-based TFTs
    3.7.4 Notes on ZnO and Transparent Electronics
    3.7.5 Power Electronics
    3.7.6 Batteries and Fuel Cells
    3.8 Key Points Made in this Chapter
    Chapter Four: Eight-Year Forecasts of ZnO Electronics Markets
    4.1 Forecasting Methodology
    4.1.1 Economic and Technological Assumptions
    4.2 Eight-Year Forecast by Application
    4.2.1 Forecasts of ZnO-Based Bulk Conductive Coatings
    4.2.2 Forecast of ZnO in PV Electrodes
    4.2.3 Forecast of ZnO as ITO Replacement
    4.2.4 Forecast of ZnO in Varistors and Power Electronics
    4.2.5 Forecast of ZnO Transistor Markets
    4.2.6 Forecast of ZnO lighting and UV Source Markets
    4.2.7 Forecast of ZnO Sensors
    4.3 Eight-Year Summary of ZnO Electronics by Application and Materials Functionality
    Acronyms and Abbreviations Used In this Report
    About the Author
    List of Exhibits
    Exhibit E-1: ZnO:  Incentives for Commercialization and Possible Revenue Sources
    Exhibit E-2: ZnO Markets in Electronics ($ Millions)
    Exhibit 2-1: Seven Manufacturing Approaches for ZnO Thin Films
    Exhibit 3-1: Applications of ZnO in Electronics by Type
    Exhibit 3-2: Resistivity Requirements of Display Application for TCOs
    Exhibit 4-1: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  Bulk Conductive Coatings
    Exhibit 4-2: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  ZnO Electrodes
    Exhibit 4-3: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  ZnO as an ITO Substitute in Displays and Lighting
    Exhibit 4-4: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  ZnO in Varistors and Power Electronics
    Exhibit 4-5: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  Transistor-Related Applications
    Exhibit 4-6: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  Lighting Applications
    Exhibit 4-7: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  Sensor Applications ($ Millions)
    Exhibit 4-8: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  Summary of Applications ($ Millions)
    Exhibit 4-9: ZnO Markets in Electronics:  Summary by ZnO Material Functionality


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